Respiratory system is one of the vital systems of the body. Any disturbance in this system is this system is very distressing and the stoppage of respiration will lead to death. Respiratory stimulants are used as the last resort when there is sudden stoppage of respiration. System is exposed to the atmosphere directly and the air which is inhaled may carry lots of germs. Respiratory infections caused by bacteria, viruses. Are also very common particularly in children where in the defense mechanisms are poor. Antibiotics are key drugs to cure respiratory infection. They have been discussed under the section symptom of the respiratory disorder. This part describes various agent used in bronchial asthma and cough.
Pathophysiology of bronchial asthma:
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli and by widespread narrowing of the airways. Bronchial asthma is associated with coughing. Shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing. There is contraction of airway smooth mucus. Mucosal thickening from edema and cellular infiltration and narrowing of the air way luman due to thick viscid plugs of mucus. The bronchospasm in asthma results from the release of various chemical mediators such as histamine, leukotriens eosinphil chemo-tactic factor, neutrophil chemotatic factor, neutral proteases, platelet activating factor. The release of these agents might occur as a result of antigen-antibody reaction or due to some other pathological conditions. In addition of the release of chemical mediators, there is increase in responsiveness to the effects of chemical mediators.
In many subject the asthmatic attack consists of two phases which illustrate the pathophysiology of the condition as follows:
- An immediate phase is the phase on exposure to eliciting agent. The stimulation by allergen causes degranulation of mast cells releasing histamine and stimulation of mononuclear cells causing release of platelet activating factor, prostaglandin, leucotrines etc and chemotaxis. Because of the release of various substances there is bronchospasm.
- The late phase which consist of a special type of inflammation comprising of vasodilatation, edema, mucous secretion and bronchospasm. In late phase because of chemotaxis, infiltration of cytokine releasing T- cells & activation of inflammatory cell, particularly eosinophils there is a release of leucotriens, PAF etc. these substances may in turn cause release of excitatory neuropeptides responsible for inflammation, vasodilatation. Eosinophil proteins cause epithelial damage and bronchial hyper responsiveness.
The immediate phase is reversed by bronchodilators like beta 2-adrenocepter agonists, antimuscurinic agents and xanthenes alkaloids. Late phase can be treated with corticosteroids. Drugs that prevent mast cell degranulation can be used in both phase of asthma.
So special care should be taken for the respiratory system have fresh air and save yourself.
If you feel that you could be suffering from the symptoms of bronchial asthma it’s best to visit a medical specialist for Bronchial Asthma treatment near you at the earliest use Omihub to find them faster.